Readings on Bharathakoothu

in Bibliography
Published on: 26 September 2018

M.D. Muthukumaraswamy

M.D. Muthukumaraswamy is Tamil writer, Director of National Folklore Support Centre, Chennai, and a Consultant at Sahapedia.

Arunachalam, M. An Introduction to the History of Tamil Literature. Tiruchitrambalam: Gandhi Vidyalayam, 1974.


———. Ballad poetry (Peeps into Tamil literature). Tiruchitrambalam: Gandhi Vidyalayam, 1976.


———. Festivals of Tamil Nadu (Peeps into Tamil culture). Tiruchitrambalam: Gandhi Vidyalayam, 1980.


Ashton, Martha Bush, and Bruce Christie. Yakshagana (A Dance Drama Of India). New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1977.


Ayrookuzhiel, A. M. Abraham. The Sacred in Popular Hinduism. Madras: Christian Literature Society, 1983.


Babb, Lawrence. ‘Walking on Flowers: A Hindu Festival Cycle.’ Working Papers no. 27, Department of Sociology, University of Singapore, 1974.


———. The Divine Hierarchy: Popular Hinduism in Central India. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975.


Baliga, N. S. Madras District Gazetteers: South Arcot. Madras: Government Press, 1962.


Beck, Brenda E. F. ‘Colour and Heat in South Indian Ritual.’ Man 4 (1969): 553–72.

———. ‘The Study of a Tamil epic: Several Versions of Silappadikaram Compared.’ Journal of Tamil Studies 1 (1972): 23–38.

———. ‘The Goddess and the Demon: A local South Indian Festival and its Wider Context.’ Puruārtha 5 (1981): 83–136.

———. The Three Twins: The Telling of a South Indian Folk Epic. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982.


Blackburn, Stuart H. ‘The Folk Hero and Class Interests in Tamil Heroic Ballads.’ Asian Folklore Studies 37, no. 1 (1978): 131–49. 

———. ‘Oral Performance: Narrative and Ritual in a Tamil Tradition.’ The Journal of American Folklore 94, no. 372 (1981): 207–27.

———. ‘Death and Deification: Folk Cults in Hinduism.’ History of Religions 24, no. 3 (1985): 255.


Brown, Carolyn Henning. ‘Ritual power and danger: Hindu firewalking in Fiji.’ Paper presented to the American Anthropological Association, Washington, D.C., 1976.

———. ‘Tourism and Ethnic Competition in a Ritual Form: The Firewalkers of Fiji.’ Oceania 54, no. 3 (1984): 223–44.


Chandra Sekhar, A. Fairs and festivals: 3. East Godavari District. Vol. 2 of Part 7B of Census of India 1961, Andhra Pradesh. Delhi: Manager of Publications, 1961.

———. Fairs and festivals: 6. Guntur District. Delhi: Manager of Publications, 1961. 

———. Fairs and festivals: 7. Nellore District. Delhi: Manager of Publications, 1961. 

———. Fairs and festivals: 8. Chittoor District. Delhi: Manager of Publications, 1961. 

———. Fairs and festivals: 9. Cuddapah District. Delhi: Manager of Publications, 1961.

———. Fairs and festivals: 11. Kurnool District. Delhi: Manager of Publications, 1963.


Chockalingam, K. Temples of Tamilnadu: 7. Thanjavur. 1973–74. 


Claus, Peter J. ‘Oral traditions, Royal Cults, and Materials for a Reconsideration of the Caste System in South India.’ Journal of Indian Folkloristics 1 (1978): 1–25.


Cox, J. F. A Manual of the North Arcot District. Madras: Government Press, 1881. 


Crooke, William. The Popular Religion and Folklore of Northern India.  Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1968. 


Cunningham, Alexander. ‘Report of a tour in the Punjab in 1878–79’Vol. 14 of Archeological Survey of India. Varanasi: Indological Book House, 1970. 


Danforth, Loring M. ‘The Role of Dance in the Ritual Therapy of the Anastenaria.’ Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 5 (1979): 141–63. 


Daniel, E. Valentine. Fluid Signs: Being a Person the Tamil Way. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.


Das, R. K. Temples of Tamil Nadu. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1964.


Devanathachar, K. ‘Up the ladder,’ or, Duryodhana’s disgrace (from the Tamil ballad of Pukhazhendi, a great bard of the twelfth century). QJMS 17 (1925–26): 200–14.


Dymock, W. ‘On the Use of Turmeric in Hindoo Ceremonial.’ JASB 2 (1890): 441–48.


Egnor, Margaret Trawick. ‘The sacred spell and other conceptions of life in Tamil culture.’ PhD thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago, 1978. 


Eichinger Ferro-Luzzi, Gabriella. ‘The logic of South Indian food offerings.’ Anthropos 72 (1977): 529–56.

———. ‘Ritual as language: The case of South Indian food offerings.’ CA 18 (1977): 507–14.


Enthoven, R. E. The Tribes and Castes of Bombay.  Bombay: Government Press, 1920–22.


Eschmann, Anncharlott, Hermann Kulke, and Gaya Charan Tripathi, eds. The Cult of Jagannath and the Regional Tradition of Orissa. New Delhi: Manohar Publishers and Distributors, 1978.


Fabricius, Johann Philip. Tamil and English Dictionary. Tranquebar: Evangelical Lutheran Mission Publishing House, 1972.


Fawcett, Fred. ‘On Some Festivals to Village Goddesses.’ JASB 2 (1890): 261–81. 


Francis, W. Madras District Gazetteers: South Arcot. Madras: Government Press, 1906. 

———. 1914. Madras District Gazetteers. Vol. 1 of Madura. Madras: Government Press. 


Frasca, Richard. ‘The Terukkiittu: Ritual theatre of Tamil Nadu.’ PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1984.


Fuller, C. J. ‘The divine couple's relationship in a South Indian temple: Minaksi and Sundaresvara at Madurai.’ HR 19 (1980):321–48.


Fuller, C. J., and Penny Logan. ‘The Navaratri festival at Madurai.’ BSOAS 48 (1985): 79–105.


Furley, William D. Studies in the Use of Fire in Ancient Greek Religion. New York: Arno Press, 1981.


Gonda, Jan. Change and Continuity in Indian Religion. The Hague: Mouton, 1965.


Gopalakrishnan, M. S. ‘Mother Goddess: A Regional Study (Madras and Malabar).’ M. Litt. thesis, University of Madras, 1953.


Gopinatha Rao, T. A. Elements of Hindu Iconography. Varanasi: Indological Book House, 1971.


Gros, Francois, and R. Nagaswamy. Uttaramerur: Legendes, Histoire, Monuments. Pondicherry: French Institute of Pondicherry, 1970.


Harman, William. ‘The Sacred Marriage of Maturai: Myth, Ritual, and Devotion in a South Indian Temple.’ Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1981.

———. ‘Marriages made in heaven work out anywhere; or, Some peculiar marriages in the Tiruvi1.aiyiitarpuriilJllm.’ Paper presented at the Conference on Religion in South India, 1983.


Hart, George L. ‘Woman and the sacred in ancient Tamilnad.’ Journal of Asian Studies 32 (1973): 233–50.

———. The Poems of Ancient Tamil: Their Milieu and their Sanskrit Counterparts. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975.


Hawley, John Stratton. At Play with Krishna: Pilgrimage Dramas from Brindavan. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981.

———. Krishna, the Butter Thief. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983.


Heesterman, Jan. The Inner Conflict of Tradition: Essays in Indian Ritual, Kingship, and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.


Hein, Norvin. The miracle plays of Mathura. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972.


Hemingway, F. R. Trichinopoly District Gazetteer. Madras: Government Press, 1907.


Heras, Henry. ‘The city of Jinji at the End of the Sixteenth Century.’ IA 55 (1926):41–43

———. The Aravidu Dynasty of Vijayanagar. Madras: B. G. Paul and Co, 1927.

———. Min Kan: The mystical meaning of possessing “fish-eyes.” Bombay: Hind Kitabs, 1947.


Hiltebeitel, Alf. The Ritual of Battle: Krishna in the Mahabharata. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1976.

———. ‘The Burning of the Forest Myth.’ In Hinduism: New essays in the history of religions, edited by Bardwell L. Smith, 208–24. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1976.

———. 1978. ‘The Indus Valley “Proto-Siva,” Reexamined Through Reflections on the Goddess, the Buffalo, and the Symbolism of Vahanas. Anthropos 73 (1978): 767–97.

———. ‘Rama and Gilgamesh: The sacrifices of the water buffalo and the Bull of Heaven.’ HR 19 (1980): 187–223.

———. ‘Draupadi’s Garments.’ Indo-Iranian Journal 22 (1980): 97–112.

———. ‘Siva, the goddess, and the disguises of the Pandavas and Draupadi.’ HR 20 (1980):147–74.

———. ‘Firewalking through the Mahabharata: The cult of Draupadi and the great Indian epic.’ India Magazine 2, no. 4 (1982): 18–27.

———. ‘Sexuality and sacrifice: Convergent subcurrents in the firewalking cult of Draupadi.’ In Images of man: Religion and historical process in South Asia, edited Fred W. Clothey. Madras: New Era Publications, 1982.

———. ‘Brothers, Friends, and Charioteers: Parallel Episodes in the Irish and Indian epics.’ In Homage to Georges Dumezil, edited by Edgar C. Polome: Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph 3 (1982) 85–112.

———. ‘Toward a Coherent Study of Hinduism.’ Religious Studies Review 9 (1983): 206–12.

———. ‘The Two on One Chariot: Upanis.adic Imagery and Epic Mythology’. HR 24 (1984): 1–26.

———. ‘Two South Indian Oral Epics’. HR 24 (1984): 164–73.

———. ‘Purity and Auspiciousness in the Sanskrit Epics.’ In Essays on purity and auspiciousness, edited by Frederique Appfel Marglin and John Carman. Journal of Developing Societies 1 (1985):41–54.

———. ‘On the Handling of the Meat, and Related Matters, in Two South Indian Buffalo Sacrifices.’ In Divisione della Carni: Dinamica Socia Ie e Organizzazione del Cosmo, edited by Christiano Grottanelli. L’Uomo 9 (1985): 171–99.


Inglis, Stephen. ‘Possession and pottery: Serving the divine in South Indian community.’ In Gods of Flesh, Gods of Stone, edited by Joanne Punzo Waghorne and Norman Cutler. Chambersburg, Pennsylvania: Anima, 1985.


Iyer, E. Krishna. ‘Therukoothu of Street Play.’ Marg 19 (1966): 13–16.


Jagadisa Ayyar, P. V. South Indian Festivities. Madras: Higginbothams, 1921.

———. South Indian shrines. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1982.


Jagadisvarananda, Swami. The Devi-Mahatmyam or Sri Durgti Saptasati. Madras: Sri Ramakrishna Math, 1972.


Jagannathachariar, C. 1981. Foreword to Venkatesa Acharya. 1981.


Jouveau-Dubreuil. Pallava antiquities. London: Probstain, 1916.


Kailasapathy, K. Tamil Heroic Poetry. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968.


Kern, Henrik, trans. The Brhat Sanhitii, or Complete System of Natural Astrology of Varaha-Mihira. London: Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1869.


KiramankaJin Akaravaricaip PaW (Alphabetical list of villages). 1972. Madras(?): Tamilnatu Aracu.


Koppedrayer, K. I. ‘Are Sudras Entitled to Ride in the Palanquin?’ Paper presented at Annual Meeting of American Academy of Religion, Atlanta, 1986.


Kothandaraman, Pon. ‘Terukkuttu Molinatai.’ Mojjyiyal 7, no. 1 (1983): 21–33.


Kramrisch, Stella. Manifestations of Siva. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1981.

———. The presence of Siva . Princeton: Princeton University Press.


Krishnaswamy, A. Tamil Country Under Vijayanagar. Annamalai: The University, 1964.


Krishnaswamy Aiyangar, S. Ancient India. Madras: S.P.C.K, 1911.

———. ‘Landmarks in South Indian history.’ QJMS 5 (1914–15): 27–37.

———. South India and her Muhammadan Invaders. London: Oxford University Press, 1921.


Malamoud, Charles. Observations sur la notion de "reste" dans le brâhamnisme. Vienna: Indologishes Institut der Universität Wien, 1972.


Meyer, Eveline. ‘The greatness of Ankalaparamesvari, told through the story of how Paramacivam plucked the head of Piramma in the play called The Destruction of Taruvacar. South Asian Digest of Regional Writing 10 (1981):38–47.


Mitra, Kalipada. ‘The Swastika.’ Man in India 12 (1932):77–95. 


Mitra, Sarat Chandra. ‘On the Fire-walking Ceremony of the Dusadhs of Bihar.’ QJMS 27 (1936):172–8l.


Moffatt, Michael. An Untouchable Community in South India: Structure and Consensus. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979.


Nirmaia, Devi, R., ed., and V. Murugan, trans. The Wandering Voice: Three Ballads from Palm-leaf Manuscripts. Thiruvanmiyur, Madras: Institute of Asian Studies, 1987.


Obeyesekere, Gananath. The Cult of the Goddess Pattini. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.


O'Flaherty, Wendy Doniger. Asceticism and Eroticism in the Mythology of Siva. London: Oxford University Press, 1973.

———. Women, Androgynes, and Other Mythical Beasts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.

———. Dreams, Illusion, and Other Realities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.


Perumal, A. N. Tamil drama: Origin and Development. Adaiyaru, Madras: International Institute of Tamil Studies, 1981.


Peterson, Indira V. [Shetterly]. ‘The Tie that Binds: Brothers and Sisters in North and South India.’ Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on Religion in South India, Craigville, Mass, 1986.

———. ‘Arjuna's combat with the Kirtita: Rasa and bhakti in Bharavi's Kiratarjuniya.’ Paper presented at the Thirty-second International Congress of Asian and North African Studies, Hamburg, West Germany, 1986.


Prabhu, K. Sanjiva. Special Study Report on Bhuta Cult in South Kanara District. Delhi: Controller of Publications, 1977.


Ramanujan, A. K. ‘The Indian Oedipus.’ In Oedipus: A folklore casebook, edited by Lowell Edmunds and Alan Dundes. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1983.

———. ‘Two realms of Kannada Folklore.’ In Another harmony: New essays on the folklore of India, edited by Stuart H . Blackburn and A. K. Ramanujan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.


Rama Baju, B. The Folk versions of Mahabharata Stories. National Lecture Series, Madras. Mimeograph, 1982.


Rao, M. Purushottama, et al. Mahabalipuram. Madras: Maps and Atlases Publications, 1970.


Roghair, Gene H. The Epic of Palnadu: A study and translation of Palnati Vfrula Katha, a Telugu oral tradition from Andhra Pradesh, India. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982.


Rudolph, Lloyd I., and Susanne Hoeber Rudolph. The Modernity of Tradition: Political Development in India. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.


Saletore, B. A. Social and Political Life in the Vijayanagar Empire, A.D. 1346–1646. Madras: B. G. Paul and Co, 1934.


Sastri, Nilakantha. A History of South India, from Prehistoric Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar. London: Oxford University Press, 1966.


Satyanatha Aiyar, R. History of the Nayaks of Madura. Madras: University of Madras, 1980.


Sax, William S. ‘The Pandava-Lila: Self-representation in a Central Himalayan Folk Drama.’ Paper presented at the Graduate Seminar on South Asia, University of Chicago, 1986.


Schomer, Karine. ‘Cycle and Episode in a North Indian Oral Epic.’ Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of Asian Studies, Washington, D.C, 1984.


Sen, Citrabhanu. A Dictionary of Vedic rituals. Delhi: Concept Publishing Co, 1978.


Seshadri, M. ‘Mahishasuramardini: Images, Iconography, and Interpretation.’ The Half-Yearly Journal of the Mysore University 22, no. 2 (1963): 128, plates A, 1–43.


Sewell, Robert. Lists of the Antiquarian remains of the Presidency of Madras. Vol. 1 of Archaeological Survey of Southern India. Madras: Government Press, 1882.

———. A Forgotten Empire (Vijayanagar): A Contribution to the History of India. London: Swan Sonnenschein and Co, 1900.


Shastri, H. Krishna. South Indian Images of Gods and Goddesses. Varanasi: Bharatiya Publishing House, 1974.


Peterson, Indira V. [Shetterly]. ‘Recurrence and Structure in Sanskrit Literary Epic: A Study of Bharavi's Kiratarjuniya.’ Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1976.

———. ‘Arjuna as Warrior-ascetic: Tapas and Kshatriya dharma in Bharavi's Kiratarjuniya.’ Paper read at the American Oriental Society Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C, 1979.


Shideler, David William. ‘Walking the Path of Draupadi: Ritual Vitalization of the Mahabharata in a South Indian Draupadi Amman Festival.’ M.A. dissertation, University of Hawaii, 1987.


Shulman, David. ‘The Murderous Bride: Tamil Versions of the Myth of Devi and the Buffalo Demon.’ HR 16 (1976): 120–46.

———. Tamil Temple Myths: Sacrifice and Divine Marriage in South Indian Saiva Tradition. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980.

———. ‘The Green Goddess of Tirumullaivayil.’ East and West 30 (1980): 117–31. 

———. The King and the Clown in South Indian Myth and Poetry. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985.

———. ‘Battle as Metaphor in Tamil Folk and Classical Traditions.’ In Another harmony: New essays on the folklore of India, edited by Stuart H. Blackburn and A. K. Ramanujan, 105–30. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.


Singaravelu Mudaliar, A. Abithana Chintamani: The Encyclopedia of Tamil Literature. New Delhi: Asian Educational Series, 1981.


Sircar, D. C. The Sakti cult and Tara. Calcutta: University of Calcutta, 1967.


Sitaramiah, V. Mahakavi Pampa. Bombay: Popular Prakashan, 1917.


Sivathamby, Karthigesu. Drama in ancient Tamil society. Madras: New Century Book House, 1981.


Srinivas, M. N. Religion and Society Among the Coorgs of South India. Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1965.


Srinivasachari, Rao Bahadur C. S. A history of Gingee and its rulers. Annamalai University Historical Series 2. Annamalainagar: The University, 1943.


Srinivasan, K. R. Some Aspects of Religion as Revealed by Early Monuments and Literature of the South. Madras: University of Madras, 1960.

 ———. Cave-temples of the Pallavas. Architectural Survey of Temples, no. 1. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India, 1964


Stein, Burton. Peasant State and Society in Medieval South India. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1980. 

———. ed. South Indian Temples: An Analytical Reconsideration. New Delhi: Vikas, 1978.


Subba Rao, T. V. ‘Telugu Folk Additions to the Mahabharatha.’ Folklore (Calcutta) 17, 8–9 (1976): 269–75.


Subramanian, M. V. Vyasa and Variations: The Mahabharatha Story. Madras: Higginbothams, 1967.


Subramanyam, Padma. Bharata's Art: Then and Now. Madras: Inter Media, 1979.


Suntharalingam, V. [a.k.a Visuvalingam]. ‘Abhinavagupta's Conception of Humour: Its resonances in Sanskrit drama, poetry, Hindu mythology and spiritual practice.’ PhD dissertation, Banaras Hindu University, 1983.


Tamil Lexicon. [1926-39]1982. 6 vols. Madras: University of Madras.


Tagare, Ganesh Vasudeo, trans. and ed. The Bhagavata Purana, part 3. Vol. 9 of Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology series. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1976.


Thompson, M. S. H. ‘The Mahabharata in Tamil’. JRAS, 115–23, 1960.


Thurston, Edgar, and K. Rangachari. Castes and tribes of southern India. Madras: Government Press, 1965.


Trautman, Thomas R. Dravidian Kinship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.


Turner, Victor. The Forest of Symbols. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1967.


Vaidyanathan, K. R. Temples and Legends of Kerala. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1982.


Venkata Ramanayya, N. The Early Muslim Expansion in South India. Madras: University of Madras.


Venkatesa Acharya, Kambaluru. Mahabharata and Variations: Perundevanar and Pampa (a Comparative Study). Kurnool: Vyasaraja Publications, 1981.


Vetschera, Traude. ‘Laxmi: A Mother Goddess of the Deccan.’ Anthropos 71 (1976): 457–65.

 ———. ‘The Potaraja and their Goddess.’ Asian Folklore Studies 37 (1978):105


Vidyarthi, Govind. ‘Mudiettu: Rare Ritual Theatre of Kerala.’ Sangeet Natak 42 (1976): 51-59.


Vogel, J. Ph. ‘The Head-offering to the Goddess in Pallava Sculpture.’ BSOAS 6, no. 2 (1930–32): 539–43.


Wadley, Susan. Brother, Husbands, and Sometimes Sons: Kinsmen in North Indian ritual.’ Eastern Anthropologist 29 (1976): 149–70.


Walhouse, M. J. ‘Passing Through Fire.’ IA 7 (1878): 126–29.


Waterfield, William. The Lay of Alha: A Saga of Rajput Chivalry as Sung by the Minstrels of Northern India. London: Oxford University Press, 1923.


Wayman, Alex. ‘The Mirror-like Knowledge in Mahayana Buddhist Literature.’ Asiatische Studien 25 (1971): 353–63.

———. The mirror as a pan-Buddhist symbol. HR 13 (1974): 251–69.


Whitehead, Henry. The Village Gods of South India. Calcutta: Association Press, 1921.


Wikander, Stig. Der Arische Miinnerbund: Studien zur Indo-Iranische Sprache-und Religionsgeschichte. Lund: Hakan Ohlssons Buchdruckerei, 1938.

90. Wilson, H. H., trans. and ed. The Vishnu Purana. Calcutta: Punthi Pustak, 1972.


Winslow, M. Winslow's Comprehensive Tamil and English Dictionary. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1979.


Ziegenbalg, Bartholomew. Genealogy of the South Indian gods: A manual of the mythology and religion of the people of Southern India, translated by G. J. Metzger. Madras: Higginbotham, 1869.


Zimmer, Heinrich. Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization. New York: Harper, 1946.


Zvelebil, Kamil V. Tamil Literature. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1974.