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Mohrakashi and Naqqashes

Books in English


Aijazuddin, F.S. Pahari Paintings and Sikh Portraits in the Lahore Museum. London, New York: Sotheby Parke Bernet, 1977.


All about Sikh. Art and Architecture of Harimandir Sahib: The Golden Temple. Online at (viewed on November 10, 2017)


Anand, Mulk Raj. ‘Specimens of paintings under the Sikhs.’ Marg 10, no. 2 (March 1957): 37–44.


Anand, Mulkraj and Kanwarjeet Singh Kang. 'Survivals of wall paintings in Amritsar.’ Marg 30, special issue (June 1977): 46–56.

———. 'Chronology of Amritsar Incorporating Culture Chart.’ Marg 30, special issue (June 1977): 72.

———. Art and Architecture of the Golden temple.’ Marg 30, special issue (June 1977): 23–35.


Aryan, K.C. Punjab Painting. Patiala: Punjabi University,1977.


Bains, K.S. Sikh Heritage in Painting. New Delhi: Art Gallery Punjab and Sind Bank Perfect Press Pvt. Ltd.,1995.


Brown, Percy. ‘Mediaeval Period: Synthesis of Hindu and Muslim Influences in the Sikh Shrines at Amritsar.’ Marg 10, no. 2 (March 1957) 23–26.


Deol, Jeevan Singh. ‘Illustrations and Illumination in Sikh Scriptural Manuscripts.’ Marg 54, no. 4, (June 2003): 30–47


G, Punjabi. A note on Flowers in Sikhism.  Online at (viewed November 12, 2017)


Johar, S.S. ‘Golden Temple-The Abode of Bliss and Blessing’. Online at http;// (viewed on October 11, 2017)


Kang, Kanwarjeet Singh. ‘Fading frescoes call for facelift.’ Online at (viewed on December 10, 2017).

———. ‘Guru’s tale written on the wall.’  Online at (viewed on December 10, 2017).


Kapur, Prithpal Singh, and Mohinder Singh. ‘Guru Arjan Dev: Life, Martyrdom and legacy (1563–1606). Paper presented at International Seminar, New Delhi, Delhi Sikh Gurdwara Management Committee, September 27–28, 2006.


Kaur, Maneet. ‘Floral in the Fresco Paintings of Darbar Sahib’. Paper presented at National Conference on Innovation in Visual Arts, Amity School of Fine Arts, Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Noida, March 23, 2017.


Nag, Arun Kumar, Jayanta Chakrabarti, K. G. Subramanyam, and R. Shiv Kumar. The Santiniketan Murals. Calcutta: Seagull Books, published in association with Visva-Bharati, 1995.


Prakash, Satya. ‘A Note on Some typical Jaipur Frescoes.’ Lalit Kala (April 1955–56).


Shankar, Vijay N., and Ranvir Bhatnagar. The Golden temple: a gift to humanity commemorating 400 years of Guru Granth Sahib. Amritsar: Ranvir Bhatnagar Publication, 2004.


Shrivastava, R.P. Punjab Painting: Study in Art and Culture. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1983.


Singh, Balvinder.Art work in Historic Sikh Shrines: Need for documentation and Conservation’.  Paper presented at XXI International CI PA Symposium, Athens, 1–6 October, 2007. Online at (viewed on October 20, 2017).


Singh, Bhan. ‘Amritsar - A Repository of Sikh school of Art and Architecture’. Online at (viewed on October 11, 2017)


Singh, G.S. Sohan. Forward to Gian Chittrawali: Masterpieces of the Late Bhai Gian Singh Naqqash, by G.S. Sohan Singh. Amritsar: Punjabee Press, 1956.


Singh, Mohinder. The Golden Temple (Panjab heritage series). New Delhi: UBS Publisher’s Distributors Ltd. in association with National Institute of Punjab Studies, 2002.


Singh, Patwant. The Golden Temple. New Delhi: Time Books International, 1988.


Singh, Roopinder. ‘Report on the Symposium on Punjab murals.’ Online at (viewed on November 10, 2017)


Sodhi, Jiwan. ‘Murals of Gurudwara Baba Atal  Sahib ji’. Online at (viewed on October 11, 2017)


Walia, Varinder. ‘The rich life of an artist who was a Pauper’. Online at (viewed on October 21, 2017)


Books in Punjabi


Kang, Kanwarjit Singh. Punjab De Kandh Chittar. Patiala: Punjabi University, 1988.


Naqqash, Bhai Gian Singh. Naqqashi Darpan. Amritsar: Bhai Buta Singh Pratap Singh Pustaka waley, 1924.

———. Naqqashi Art Shiksha. Amritsar: Bhai Buta Singh Pratap Singh Pustaka waley, 1942.


Roop, Harinder Singh. Roop Rang. Ludhiana: Lahore Book Shop, 1939.

———. Sikh te Sikhi. Amritsar: Sri Khiwi Singh Malak, Punjab Katra Baghiyawala publisher, 1947.


Singh, Sahib Giani Kirpal. Sri Harmandir Sahib Sunehri Itihaas. Amritsar: Dharam Parchaar Committee SGPC, 1954.