29 Sep 2018 - 08:00 to 09:30
Lucknow , Uttar Pradesh
Lucknow, a city known for its nawabs and kababs is profound in
29 Sep 2018 - 11:00 to 13:30
Shillong
The Air Force Museum, located in 7th mile, upper Shillong,
29 Sep 2018 - 14:00 to 16:00
Pondicherry
Exquisite bronze sculptures were produced in the Tamil country

Workspace

Mothers, Lovers & Others: A study of the Chausathi Yogini Temple in Hirapur

 

Yoginis are a class of divine and semi-divine deities who emerged in the 5th century AD and remained in worship till 13th century AD, after which their cult seems to have become extinct. Originally esoteric deities, by the 10th century Yoginis became prominent in the wider religious landscape, as attested by their entry into Puranic literature and the unique circular, open-air temples enshrining them across the subcontinent (Dehejia 1986:10).

 

Yoginis, Chausaṭhi Yogini temple, Hirapur

 

The  Chausaṭh  Yogini  cult,  though  comprising  of  Yoginis,  is  slightly  different  as the  term  ‘Yogini’ can  represent  diverse  religious  and  cultic  entities  ranging  from  a  yogic  adept,  a  partner  in  Chakra-puja,  a  sorceress,  astrological  deities,  Yoginis  of  the  internal  chakras,  Yoginis  of  the  Sri  Chakra,  a  Devi  or  the  Great  Goddess,  aspects  of  Devi,  attendants  of  the  Devi,  acolytes  of  the  Great  Goddess  or  the  Matrkas,  Kaula  Mata  or  patron  goddess  of  the  Kaulas,  and  variants  of  Yakṣiṇis  and  Dakinis (Roy 2015:224).  The  Chausaṭh  Yoginis  are  however  a  group  of  goddesses  who  belong  to  a  class  of  Vidyapiṭha  deities,  [i]  who  draw  their  allegiance  to  Matrkas  and  Bhairava. The  symptomatic  characteristics  that  define  the  Yogini  cult  include  tightly-bound  clans  or  groups,  association  with  magic  and  occult,  martial  prowess,  sexuality (both  anti-sexual  and  hyper  sexual) and  death. 

 

The Hirapur Yoginis are devoid of any inscriptional details, having been identified based on their iconographical features by the Odia scholar Sarala Das’s 16th century text Chandi Purana. Though the text is of a much later origin than the temple itself, it appears that Sarala Das included these Yoginis in his text as it might have been a thriving temple in his times, and also because some of these Yoginis have individual temples to themselves spread across the length and breadth of Odisha. The Yoginis of Hirapur are widely represented; these Yoginis like most of the other Yogini sets follow a similar tradition of including other female group divinities like Sapta Maātrkās within the Yogini group. They also include the deities of the Asta-Dikpalas. What is unique about the Yoginis of Hirapur is the sheer range that is seen in terms of mounts, attributes and even hairstyles. In Hirapur, there are lesser number of composite figures (comprising an animal head and a human body) than Ranipur Jharial.

 

All the Yoginis depicted here are in standing position and are much less elaborate than the Yoginis belonging to later period, the ones found in Chausath Yogini temples of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Barring one, each of these Yoginis have a variety of mounts, especially animals. Unlike the sombre and meditative Yoginis of Bhedaghat or Rikhiyan, Hirapur Yoginis range from deities in celebratory to warfare mode. Some of these Yoginis have Kapalika  or crematoria iconography where they are depicted standing on a corpse or carrying and even drinking from a skull cup. These very expressive Yoginis are seen merrymaking while drinking from a wine vessel, playfully touching their toes. The ones which are in war mode are Agneyi, Chamunda, Bhalluka, Aghora and Vindyavalini. The theomorphic figures include Narsimhi, Ostagriva, Varahi, Sarpassa, Ganesi, Bhalluka and Vikatanaina.

 

Appropriation of the Matrkas and the Maa

 

The  Yoginis  are  closely  associated  with  the  Matrka  cult  as  is  evident  from  the  close  connection  between  the early depictions of mother  goddesses  and  emergent  conceptions  of  Yoginis.  Early  tantric treatises  on  Yoginilakśaṇa  or  'the  characteristics  of  Yoginis'  classify  these  goddesses  according  to  clans  (kulagotra)  that  have  the  seven  or  eight  mothers  as  matriarchs.  The  clan  mothers  are  those  in  whose  nature  the  Yoginis  partake  as  amsas,  ‘portions’  or  ‘partial  manifestations’ (Shaman 2012:108).  It  is  possible  that  the  numeric  grouping  of  seven  or  eight  that  is  found  in  the  Matrka  tradition  also  got  replicated  in  the  Yogini  cult and  with that  the  number  Chausath  or  64  came  to  be  associated  with  the  Yoginis.

 

One of  the  major  sources  which  link  Matrkas  to  Yoginis  is  the Mahabharata.  Though Mahabharata does  not  necessarily  attest  the  presence  of  any  temples  dedicated  to  the  seven  mothers,  Salyaparvan  lists  the  name  of  the  seven  mothers  who  have  features  similar  to  the  later  age  Yoginis.  Among  these  mothers,  some are  said  to  have  claws,  fangs  and  beaks.  This  corresponds  to  some  the  Yoginis  which  have  demonic  features  and  composite  bodies.[ii]  Some  of  them  are  youthful  maidens,  while  others  are  fleshless  or  potbellied.  These Yoginis  are  said  to  dwell  in  ghoulish  spaces  such  as  cremation  grounds.  The  theriomorphism,  shape-shifting,  multiplicity,  extraordinarily  variegated  appearances,  bellicosity,  independence,  simultaneous  beauty  and  danger of the Yoginis  all  find  precedent  in  these  early  mother  goddesses,  as  does  their  connection  with  khechari vidya or the power of flight.  They  also  come  to  play  a  protective  role  vis-à-vis  the  world  in  later  mythology,  although  some  of  their  early  inauspicious  and  wild  characteristics  tend  to  persist  in  these  accounts. 

 

The  Hirapur Yoginis in  their  visual  form  are  feminised  powers  of  sustenance,  fecundity,  contagion  and  mortality.  In  Odisha,  the  cult  of  the  Yoginis  developed  in a parallel manner alongside the  Matrka  cult,  and  more  often  than  not  their  paths  seems  to  have crossed. The entire Sapta Matrka group, including Varahi, Aindri, Kaumari, Vaishnavi, Chamunda, Maheshwari and Brahmani, is found in Hirapur. Apart from the Matrkas, other important cultic mothers worshipped throughout Odisha can also be seen as Yoginis in Hirapur; one such example being Viraja. Viraja in  her  present  cult  image  in Jajpur is  worshipped  as  a  two-armed  Mahisasuramardini; however, in Hirapur she becomes a very  indistinct  and  placid  looking  Yogini.  The said  Yogini  is  twin-armed  and  is  shown  standing  on  top  of  an  unidentifiable  spherical  object  out  of  which  a  lotus  stalk  appears  to  be  rising.  She has  nothing  in  common  with  either  the  goddess  called  Viraja  or  Durga.  Both  her  hands  are  missing  and  the  only  attribute  that  is  common  to  Viraja  and  this  Yogini  is  the  lotus. There could  be  two  factors  leading  to  this  kind  of  simplistic  and  almost  insipid  depiction.  Firstly, since  the central  deity  of  the  shrine  (worshipped  as  Mahamaya)  who  is  depicted  quite  majestically  is  a  tantric  divinity,  it  seems  unlikely  that  a  brahmanical  icon  could  have  warranted  a  similar  treatment  in  terms  of  depiction.  Secondly, it  is  possible  that  the  Yogini  was  represented  keeping  in  mind  her  tribal/folk  antecedents  as  Stambhesvari,  and  therefore  it  is  devoid  of  any  special  characteristics.  It is  possible  that  this particular Yogini  could  be  just a form  of  Viraja  without  exactly  replicating  each  and  every  iconographic  details  of  Viraja  or  Durga.  Her diminished status  in  a  distinctly  tantric  sanctum  might  have  led  to  the  reinterpretation  of  her  iconography. 

 

This goes on to show that the appropriation  that  took  place  was  not  only  from  the  tantric  to  the  brahmanical,  but  also  the  other  way  round.  The Yogini  ascribed  as  Viraja,  is  also  an  evidence  of  one  such  assimilation. 

 

Yogini Viraja Chausathi Yogini Temple, Hirapur

 

(Un)Sacred sexuality and (De)Sexualized icons

 

Tantrism embodies a  critical  and  controversial  attitude  toward  women,  sexuality  and  their  relationship  with  their  bodies,  social  classes  and  traditional  notions  of  purity  and  impurity. The Yogini lexicon comprises  of  a  gendered  entity  who  can  be  an  ogress,  a  sorceress,  healer,  female  attendant  to  the  present  day  woman  who  can  be  called  a  Yogini  if  she  is  healing  people  by  getting  possessed.  According to  Anamika  Roy (2015:224),  when  it  comes  to  Chausaṭh  Yoginis,  ‘the  question  of  a  goddess  ensconced  in  a  patriarchal  framework  does  not  arise  here.  Male worshipping  the  goddess  may  not  present  a  symbol  of  the  powerful  position  of  women  in  society. Goddess  worship  had  always  been  there  in  society.  There  was  no  inherent  advocacy  that  a  powerful  symbol  like  goddess  be  translated  into  the  question  of  gender.’  In Hirapur, one comes across a fascinating group of  Yoginis  who in their original mythological context  had  been  confined to the  roles  of  consorts,  attendant  deities  and  possessed  women; however, with  their  entry  into  the  Yogini  cult  they  are  transformed  into  individual  ferocious  deities, for instance the Yogini Sarasvati who has  the  body  of  a  female,  carries  a  veena,  but  is  moustachioed as she  can  be  seen  twirling  her  moustache with one of her hands. This Yogini  is  an  androgynous  representation  of  the  goddess  of  learning representing a process  of  synchronisation  of  the  masculine  and  feminine  aspect  within  a  Yogini,  which  was  not  replicated  elsewhere  among  other Yogini  temples  or  sculptures. 

 

Yogini Sarasvati, Chausathi Yogini Temple, Hirapur

 

Sarasvati as  the  androgyne  in  Hirapur  Yogini  temple  is  not  clearly  split  into  half  but  is  delicately  fused.  There is  no  clear  cut  left  or  right  distinction  as  is  found  among  other  deities  like  Siva-Parvati,  Visnu-Laksmi,  Hari-Hara. Similarly, another Yogini in the Hirapur temple identified as Rati holds no  resemblance  to  the  beauteous  Rati  who is also the consort of  Kamadeva. This particular  Yogini  has  a  grotesque face  and is almost  macabre  in  appearance.  Interestingly, this Yogini has Kamadeva as her mount. Her face  is  feral  to  the  point  of  being  feline,  which  also  raises  the  possibility  of  her  being  a  prototype  of  Narsimhi.  Though there already  exists  a  Narsimhi-like  Yogini  at  Hirapur, but  the  possibility  of  this  Yogini  belonging  to  that  group  cannot  be  completely  ruled  out.  If this  is  so,  she  becomes  the  third  feline  Yogini  at  Hirapur,  the  other  two  being  Narsimhi  and  Ostrarudha. 

 

Yogini Rati, Chausathi Yogini Temple, Hirapur

 

The Yogini  is  twin-armed  but  her  hands  are  broken  therefore  it  is  difficult  to  find  out  about  her  ayuddhas (attributes).  This particular  representation  is  both  unusual  and  complex  because  of  two  factors:  a)  Yoginis  are  basically  devoid  of  any  male  counterparts,  but  here  is  a  Yogini  who  not  only  is  a  famed  mythological  wife  but  is  also  represented  in  the  temple  with  her  spouse.  b)  The Yogini  in  question  is  seen  doing  the  exact  opposite  of  what  Rati  represents: not  only  is  she  standing  on  top  of  her  husband,  but  she  is  also  seen  to  be  trampling  him. 

 

There is a  possibility  that  this  Yogini  with  her  macabre  monstrosity  is  seen  to  be  trampling  the  egoistic  Kamadeva. Figuratively, she  is  very  close  to  the  ogresses  who accompany  Bhairava    to   charnel  grounds    as  is  described    in    the  texts,    but    what  can    be    seen    here    is    the    unbridled    and    intemperate  passion  of    a    woman    who    is    otherwise  a  famous  consort/wife.  Rati  or  the  Yogini  here  transcends  the  conventional  spousal  role,  and  instead  takes  on  a  more  dynamic  and  ferocious  role  of  an  ugra  devata (fierce deity) who  dismantles  the  gender  roles.

 

The Unsocial  Paragons  within  the  Tantric  order

 

Why would  one  wish  to  identify  with,  to  actually  become  (in  the  logic  of  Tantra),  a  goddess,  each  of  whom  dramatically  embodies  marginal,  polluting  or  socially  subversive  qualities?  These goddesses  are  frightening,  dangerous  and  loathsome. They often threaten  social  order.  In their  strong  associations  with  death,  violence,  pollution  and  despised  marginal  social  roles,  they  call  into  question  such  normative  social  ‘goods’  as  worldly  comfort,  security,  respect,  and  honour.  One of  the  most  important  iconographic representations  that  has  been  found  among  the  Yoginis  is  that  of  Kapalika  which is recurring in natureThe Yoginis  are  intrinsically  connected  to  Bhairava  who,  in  most  of  the  extant  Chausath  Yogini  temples,  is  depicted  as  the  leader  of  the  Yogini  group.  Some of  the  Yoginis  frequently  bear  skulls  and  bone  ornaments,  skull  cups  and  skull staves  (khatvanga),  as  well  as  incorporate  other  elements  of  radical  tantric  iconography.  This category  of  Yoginis  comprise  of  the  belligerent  and  the  violent  ones  who  are  revered  and  feared  because  of  their  unpredictably  antinomian  nature.  These  quintessential  vamayoginis  are  differently  classified  as  raktapayini,  surapayini,  garbhabhaksa,  maṁsapriya  and  many  other  such  titles  that  evoke  fear  and  mystery. 

 

Every Chausath Yogini  group  comprises  of  some  of  the  more  identifiable  and  well-known  goddesses  but  there  are  some  who  are  relatively  obscure  and  unknown.  These could  include  folk  deities,  village  goddesses  and tribal  goddesses.  These  lesser-known  goddesses  could  be  in  worship  in  the  region  due  to  their  association  with  disease,  sudden  death,  and  other  realities  that  threaten  the  stability  and  even  the  existence  of  the  village  system.  They might  be  understood  as  instigating  society's  confrontation  with  the  chaotic,  demonic,  disruptive  dimensions  of  life,  particularly  in  the  context  of  festivals  when  the  village  goddesses  are  fully  invoked.  They, like  the  diseases  so  often  associated  with  them,  are  unpredictable  in  their  moods.  They erupt  onto  the  scene  suddenly,  always  powerfully  and  undeniably,  and  usually  dangerously. 

 

It is  interesting  to  note  that  in Hirapur, not  every  Yogini  with antinomian qualities is  represented  in  a  repulsive  or  a  wrathful  way.  We find  examples  like  Charcika,  Chandika, Tara  and  others,  otherwise  known  for  their  martial  and  destructive  traits,  are  depicted  in  a  sober  and  pacific  manner.  Similarly, a  Yogini  allegedly  identified  as  Yamuna  is  far  removed  from  the  conventional  and  very  graceful  riverine  goddess.  Hirapur has come  to  represent  juxtapositions  which  can  at  best  be  said  to  have  order  within  chaos  and  chaos  within  order.  It is  worth  reiterating  that  none  of  the  Yoginis  have  been  identified,  and  this  case  study  is  an  attempt  to  suggest  iconographic  factors  that  could  help  in  doing  so  even  if  hypothetically. 

 

Yogini Yamuna, Chausathi Yogini Temple, Hirapur

 

The fierce  and animal  faces  of the Yoginis  is  a  way  to  show  that  these  beautiful  Yoginis  could  transform  themselves  with  ease.  While the  exterior  signifies  that  the  Yoginis  have  the  power  to  destroy  evil  and  anti-life  forces,  the  attribution  of  extraordinary  powers  also  serves  the  purpose  of  taking  the  Yoginis  out  of  the  realm  of  human  existence.  With such  powers,  they  transcend  the  human  sphere  to  become   deities.

 

Conclusion

 

One recurring  factor  that  came  into  perspective  is  the  constant  strife  between  the  authentic  self  and  the  other,  in  a  way  that  the  exterior  or  the  visual  is  the  other,  and  it  is  hiding  the  self.  The Yoginis  of  Hirapur  display  a  constant  antithetical  visual  representation  to  their  textual  self.  As Yoginis,  they  are  found  to  be  hiding  their  true  identity  under  layers  of  ascribed  meanings  and  symbolism. 

 

It is  worth  exploring  the  interpolations  and  cross-cultural  exchanges  that  took  place  across  the  board  when  it  came  to  Yoginis,  who  migrated  from  different  religions,  tribal  and  folk  societies  and  even  from  other  goddess  cults,  like  the  Mahavidya  group  of  goddesses  who  were  a  much  later  phenomena,  but  we  find  their  Yogini  prototypes  in  Hirapur.  The Chausath  Yoginis  also  challenge  the  preconceived  gender  and  sexual  roles  with  the kind of  impunity  that  is  replicated only to a limited extent  by  the  Mahavidyas. 

 

Yoginis of Hirapur

Table: Iconographic elements and attributes of the Yoginis at Chausathi Yogini Temple, Hirapur

 

Name

Seat/Mount

Arms

Attributes

  1. Chandika

Standing on a corpse

4

Broken

  1. Tara

Dancing on a corpse

2

Broken

  1. Narayani

Wine vessel

2

Kalasa

  1. Narmada

Elephant

2

Skull cup

  1. Maheswari

Bull

2

 

  1. Yamuna

Tortoise

4

3 arms broken, one holding a skull cup

  1. Manada/ Lakshmi

Lotus

2

-

  1. Gauri

Alligator

4

Broken

  1. Aindri/Indrani

Elephant

2

Broken

  1. Varahi

Buffalo

4

2 arms broken, other two holding skull cup and bow

  1. Varuni/Vriddhi

Sea waves

2

Broken

  1. Ranavira/Padmavati

Snake hood

2

Khadaga and garland

  1. Ustogriva / Vanaramukhi

Camel

4

Broken

  1. Vaisnavi

Owl on pedestal

2

Broken

  1. Pancha Varahi

Boar

2

Broken

  1. Badyarupa

Damru (stringed drum)

2

Broken

  1. Charchika

Human figure

2

Broken

  1. Vetali

Fish

4

Broken

  1. Chhinnamasta

Human head

4

3 arms broken, one holding a bow

  1. Vindhyavasini/ Vrshabhanana

Hill

2

Broken

  1. Jalakamini

Frog

2

Broken

  1. Ghatabara Nandini

Lion

2

Both the hands lifting an elephant skin

  1. Karkali

Dog

2

Both the hands holding right leg

  1. Sarasvati

Snake

4

3 arms broken, perhaps holding a Veena

  1. Yosha/Yasha

Pedestal

2

Broken

  1. Virupa

Series of waves – water

2

-

  1. Kaveri

Series of Kalasas

2

Broken

  1. Bhalluka

Flower creeper

2

1 arm broken, other holding damru

  1. Narsimhi/Simhamukhi

Flowers

4

2 of the upper arms broken, lower hands holding a pot

  1. Viraja

Lotus bud

2

-

  1. Bikata Nayana

-

2

Broken

  1. Maha Lakshmi

Lotus

2

Long garland and vajra

  1. Kaumari

Peacock

2

Broken

  1. Mahamaya

Lotus

10

-

  1. Rati

An archer holding a bow and arrow, probably Kamadeva

2

Broken

  1. Karkari

Crab

2

Broken

  1. Sarpasa

 

-

4

Broken

  1. Aghora

Buffalo

2

Broken

  1. Rudrakali/Bhadrakali

Crow

2

1 arm broken, other one holding a bell

  1. Ganesi

Ass

2

-

  1. Virakumari

Scorpion

4

 Bow

  1. Ambika

Mongoose

4

1 arm broken, two hands leaning down to touch knees and one holding a damru

  1. Kamaksi/Kamayani

Cock

2

Broken

  1. Ghatavari

Lion

2

Broken

  1. Stuti

Pot

4

Broken

  1. Kali

Human body

2

One arm broken, other holding Trisula

  1. Uma

Flower

4

2 arms broken, other two holding nagapasa and in abhayamudra

  1. Samudri

Conch shell

2

Broken

  1. Brahmani

-

4

Broken

  1. Jwalamukhi

Wooden cot

2

Broken

  1. Agneyi/Agnihotri

Ram

2

1 arm broken, other holding a sword

  1. Aditi

Parrot

2

Broken

  1. Chandrakanta

Stool / Pedestal

2

Broken

  1. Vayubhega

Cow

2

Broken

  1. Chamunda

Musk Deer (Dora)

4

2 upper arms holding a lion; sword, severed head

  1. Maruta

Deer

2

Broken

  1. Ganga

Crocodile

4

2 arms broken, other two holding lotus and nagapasa

  1. Dhumavati/Tarini

Duck

2

Winnowing fan

  1. Gandhari

Horse

2

Broken

  1. Sarva Mangala (missing)

-

-

-

  1. Ajita

Doe

4

Broken

  1. Surya putri

Horse

4

Shield, bow; lower 2 hands broken

  1. Vayubina

Deer

2

One hand resting on a breast

  1. Vindhyavalini

Rat

2

 Broken, but appears like holding a bow and arrow

 

Bhairavas

 

The Bhairavas of the central shrine are seated in lalitasana except Ekapada Bhairava who is standing on one foot. All the Bhairavas are depicted with erect phalluses or urdhava linga. Like the Yoginis, the Bhairavas too appear calm and smiling and not in the ferocious avatar.

 

Table: Iconographic features of the Bhairavas of Hirapur Yogini Temple

 

Name

Arms

Mount

Attributes

Ajaikapada Bhairava

4

Seated on a lotus

Khadaga , shield; other two arms broken

Svachchanda Bhairava

10

Seated on two lotuses

Dead body, aksyamala, skull cup and damaru; other arms broken

Canda Bhairava

10

Seated on a lotus and female figure

Damaru, flute, aksyamala, trisula, shield; other arms broken

Canda Bhairava

10

Seated on a lotus and female figure

Damaru, flute, aksyamala, trisula, shield; other arms broken

 

 

Katyayani

 

The Katyayanis unlike the Yoginis are carved in sandstone. Out of the nine Katyayanis, seven are shown flanked by an attendant holding an umbrella. These Katyayanis are gaunt warrior figures each holding a weapon. All the Katyayanis are standing on a human head (each looking different from the other) and are flanked by a dog.

Table: Attributes of Katyayanis in Hirapur Yogini Temple

Katyayani

Attributes

Mount

Attendant

1

Sword

Severed human head

-

2

Skull cup

Severed human head

Present

3

Knife, skull cup

Severed human head

Present

4

Aksyamala

Severed human head

Present

5

Skull cup

Severed human head

Present

6

Aksyamala

Severed human head

Present

7

Knife, skull cup

Severed human head

Present

8

Knife, skull cup

Severed human head

Present

9

Sword, Danda (staff)

Severed human head

-

 

 

References

 

Dehejia, V. 1986. Yogini Cult and Temples: A Tantric Tradition. New Delhi: National Museum.

 

Hatley, Shaman. 2012. ‘From Mātṛ to Yoginī: Continuity and Transformation in the South Asian Cults of the Mother Goddesses’, in Transformations and Transfer of Tantra in Asia and Beyond, ed. István Keul, pp. 99-129. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

 

Roy, Anamika. 2015. Sixty-Four Yoginis: Cult, Icons and Goddesses. New Delhi: Primus Books.

 

Further Readings

 

Donaldson, Thomas E. Hindu Temple Art of Orissa 3 vols. Leiden: Brill, 1985.

———. Tantra and Sakta Art of Orissa vol. II. New Delhi: D. K. Printworld, 2002.

 

Flood, G. Tantric Body: The Secret Tradition of Hindu Religion. London: I. B. Tauris, 2006.

 

Gadon, Elinor. ‘Probing the Mysteries of the Hirapur Yoginis’. In ReVision Vol. 25, no. 1 (2002): 33-41.

 

Hatley, S. The Brahmayamalatantra and Early Saiva Cult of Yoginis. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2007.

 

Mahapatra, K. N. ‘A Note on the Hypaethral Temple of Sixty-four Yoginis at Hirapur’, in Orissa Historical Research Journal II (1953): 23­­­-40; reprinted in H. K. Mahtab, ed. Orissa Historical Research Journal, Special Volume (1982).

 

Mishra, P.B. Orissa under the Bhauma Kings. Calcutta: Vishwamitra Press, 1934.

 

Panigrahi, K. C. Archaeological Remains at Bhubaneswar. Bombay: Orient Longmans, 1961.

 

Sanderson, Alexis. ‘Saivism and the Tantric Tradition’. In The World’s Religions, ed. S. Sutherland et al. London: Roudedge and Kegan Paul (1988): 600-704.

 

Sharma, Rajkumar. The Temple of Chaunsatha-yogini at Bheraghat. Delhi: Agam Kala Prakashan, 1978.

 

Törzsök, J. ‘The Doctrine of Magic Female Spirits: A Critical Edition of Selected Chapters of the Siddhayogesvarımata (tantra) with Annotated Translation and Analysis.’ PhD dissertation, University of Oxford, 1999.

———. ‘Tantric Goddesses and Their Supernatural Powers in the Trika of Kashmir (Bhedatraya in the Siddhayogesvarīmata).’ Rivista degli Studi Orientali, no. 73 (2000): 131-47.

 

Urban, H. Magia Sexualis: Sex, Magic, and Liberation in Modern Western Esotericism. University of California Press, 2006.

———. Tantra: Sex, Secrecy, Politics and Power in the Study of Religion. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.

 

White, D.G. Kiss of the Yogini: “Tantric Sex” in its South Asian Contexts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

 

Zimmer, Heinrch, R. Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization, Princeton University Press, 2015.

 

 


[i] For a detailed description on Mantrapīṭha and Vidyāpīṭha branches of the Mantramārga sect, see Sanderson, Alexis. ‘Saivism and the Tantric Tradition’ in The World’s Religions. ed. S. Sutherland et al. (1988): 600-704. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

 

[ii] Salyaparvan 43.29ab:  The context is a list of divinities that came to see Skanda.