Bibliography: Churches of Old Goa

in Bibliography
Published on: 18 May 2018

Amita Kanekar

Amita Kanekar is an independent writer and researcher in architectural history, a novelist and columnist, and a member of The Al-Zulaij Collective. Her novel about the Buddha, 'A Spoke in the Wheel', was published by HarperCollins (2005) and republished by Navayana (2014). She has also written an architectural guidebook, 'The Portuguese Sea Forts of Goa, Vasai and Chaul' (Deccan Heritage Foundation, 2015), has published papers on the architectural history of Goa and Western Karnataka, and writes newspaper columns on issues of history, politics, and architecture. She is presently working on a novel set in the late Mughal period. She is also a member of the Social Justice Action Committee – Goa.


Old Accounts


Burton, Sir Richard Francis. 1851. Goa, and the Blue Mountains: Or, Six Months of Sick Leave. London: R. Bentley.


Cottineau de Kloguen, Denis. 1995 [1831]. An Historical Sketch of Goa. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.


Fonseca, José Nicolau da. 1986 [1878]. An Historical and Archaeological Sketch of the City of Goa. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.


Mendes, A. Lopes. 1886. A India Portugueza, vols. 1 & 2. Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional.


Valle, Pietro Della. 2010 [1664, 1892]. The Travels of Pietro Della Valle in India, edited by Edward Grey, and translated by George Havers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


van Linschoten, Jan Huygen. 2001 [1598]. The Voyage of John Huyghen van Linschoten to the East Indies: The First Book, Containing His Description of the East, vol. 1. New York: Adamant Media Corporation.






Borges, Charles J.; Pereira, Oscar Guilherme; and Hannes Stubbe (eds). 2000. Goa and Portugal: History and Development. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company.


Boxer, C.R. 1991 [1969]. The Portuguese Seaborne Empire 1415–1825. Manchester: Carcanet, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation.


Brockey, Liam Matthew. 2008. Portuguese Colonial Cities in the Early Modern World. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Company.


Disney, A.R. 2009. A History of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire: From Beginnings to 1807. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Gupta, Pamila. 2014. The Relic State: St. Francis Xavier and the Politics of Ritual in Portuguese India. Manchester: Manchester University Press.


Ifeka, Caroline. 1985.  'The Image of Goa', in Indo-Portuguese History: Old Issues, New Questions, edited by Teotonio R. De Souza, 181–95. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company.


Malekandethil, Pius. 2009. ‘The City in Space and Metaphor: A Study on the Port-city of Old Goa 1510–1700’, Studies in History 25:13:31–32.


Pearson, M.N. 2008. The New Cambridge History of India: The Portuguese in India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Pissurlencar, Panduronga S.S. 1940. Colaboradores Hindus de Alfonso de Albuquerque. Bastora.


Shastri, B S. 2000. Goa-Kanara Portuguese Relations 1498–1763. Delhi: Concept Publishing Company.


Souza, Teotonio R. de (ed.). 1990. Goa through the Ages: An Economic History. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company.


———. 2001. “The Religous Policy of the Portuguese in Goa.” In The Portuguese and the Socio-Cultural Changes in India, 1500–1800, edited by K.S. Mathew, Teotonio R de Souza, and Pius. Malekandathil, 435–48. Tellicherry, Kerala: Institute for Research in Social Sciences and Humanities, MESHAR.


———. 2009. Medieval Goa: A Socio-Economic History. 2nd ed. Goa: Goa, 1556.


Subrahmanyam, Sanjay. 1993. The Portuguese Empire in Asia. London & New York: Longman.


———. 1997. The Career and Legend of Vasco da Gama. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Subrahmanyam, Sanjay (ed.). 1998. Sinners and Saints: The Successors of Vasco Da Gama. Delhi: Oxford University Press.


Trichur, Raghuraman S. 2013. Refiguring Goa: From Trading Post to Tourism Destination. First edition. Goa: Goa, 1556.


Xavier, Ângela Barreto. 2007. ‘Disquiet on the Island: Conversions, Conflicts, and Conformity in Sixteenth-Century Goa’. Indian Economic Social History Review 44.3:269–95.


Xavier, Ângela Barreto, and Zupanov, Ines G. 2015. Catholic Orientalism: Portuguese Empire, Indian Knowledge (16th-18th Centuries). New Delhi: Oxford University Press.



Art, Architecture and Urban Design


Anand, Mulk Raj, ed. 1980. Golden Goa. Mumbai: Marg Publications.


Azevedo, Carlos de. 1956. ‘The Churches of Goa.’ The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 15.3:3–6.


Carita, Helder. 1999. Palaces of Goa: Models and Types of Indo-Portuguese Civil Architecture. London: Cartago.


Dias, Pedro. 2005. De Goa a Pangim. Memórias Tangíveis da Capital do Estado Português na Índia. Lisboa: Santander Totta.


Doshi, Saryu, ed. 1983. Goa: Cultural Patterns. Mumbai: Marg Publications.


Faria, Alice Santiago. 2007. ‘Panjim Between the Past and Modernity: Building the City of New Goa, 1776–1921.’ Murphy Journal of Architectural History and Theory 2:66–97.


Fernandes, Jason Keith. 2008. ‘Indo-Portuguese Art and the Space Of The Islamicate’. Parmal 7:41–50.


———.2016. ‘Is Camões Goan?’. Online at (viewed on August 16, 2017).


Gomes, Paulo Varela. 2011. Whitewash, Red Stone. Delhi: Yoda Press.


Kandolkar, Vishvesh. 2016. ‘The Ruins that are Not’. Online at (viewed on August 16, 2017).


Kanekar, Amita. 2015. Portuguese Sea-Forts: Goa, Chaul, Vasai. Deccan Heritage Foundation, Mumbai: Jaico. 


———. 2017. ‘The Evolution of the Goan Temple Dome’, paper presented at conference ‘From S. Peter in the Vatican to Goa: Domes in Goan Religious Architecture’, India, Instituto Camões, Panaji, February 24.


———. 2017. ‘The Goan Temple: A Unique Architecture on its Way Out’. Goa Today, August.


Kowal, David. 1992. 'The "Syncretic" Nature of  Ecclesiastical Structures in Portuguese Goa', Paper presented at the Fundacao Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon, October.


———. 1993. ‘The Evolution of Ecclesiastical Architecture in Portuguese Goa’, Mitteillungen der Carl Justi - Vereinigung e V. zur Forderung der kunstwissenschaftlichen Zusammenarbeit mit Spanien und Portual. Germany, vol. 5, 1–22.


———. 1994. ‘The Relationship of Christian and Hindu Architecture in Portuguese India: The Case for Individuality and Interdependence’. Paper presented at the Fundacao das Casas de Fronteira e Alorna, Lisbon, April.


Mattoso, José (ed.). 2011. Portuguese Heritage around the World: architecture and urbanism: Ásia Oceania. Lisbon: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian.


Mendiratta, Sidh, and Vítor Luís Gaspar Rodrigues. 2012. ‘City Fortification: Goa [Velha Goa/Old Goa], Goa, India’. Online at (viewed on October 10, 2017).


Moreira, Rafael. 1995. ‘Goa em 1535: Uma cidade manuelina’. Revista da FCSH 2.8: 177–221.


Osswald, Cristina. 2013. Written in Stone: Jesuit Buildings in Goa and Their Artistic and Architectural Features. Goa: Goa, 1556.


Pereira, José. 1995. Baroque Goa. Delhi: Books and Books.


———. 2002. Churches of Goa: Monumental Legacy. Mumbai: Oxford University Press.


Pereira, José and Pal, Pratapaditya, eds. 2001. India and Portugal: Cultural Interactions. Mumbai: Marg Publications.


Rossa, Walter. 1995. ‘A Cidade Portuguesa’. In História Da Arte Portuguesa, edited by Paulo Pereira, 233–323. Lisboa: Círculo de Leitores.


———. 1997. Indo-Portuguese Cities: A contribution to the study of Portuguese Urbanism in the Western Hindustan. Lisbon: Commisão Nacional para as Commemorações dos descrobrimentos Portugueses.


———. 2011. ‘Goa [Velha Goa/Old Goa]: Historical Background and Urbanism. Online at (viewed on August 16, 2017).


Rossa, Walter, and Sidh Mendiratta. 2011. ‘A Cerca Adormecida: Recuperação Histórico Cartográfica Da Muralha Portuguesa de Goa’. In . Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Lisboa.


Rossa, Walter, and Luisa Trindade. 2006. ‘Questões E Antecedentes Da ‘Cidade Portuguesa’: O Conhecimento Sobre O Urbanismo Medieval E a Sua Expressão Morfológica / Problems and Precedents of the ‘Portuguese City’: Understanding Medieval Urbanism’. Murphy Journal of Architectural History and Theory 1:70–109.


Santos, Joaquim, and Sidh Mendiratta. 2009. ‘Sistemas Defensivos Das Ilhas de Tiswadi E Diu (Séc. XVI-XVIII)’. CEAMA 5:92–106.


Santos, J.R. 2017. ‘A Faraway Influence of Michelangelo’s dome in the Vatican: the Cupoliform Churches in Goa’, paper presented at conference ‘From S. Peter in the Vatican to Goa: Domes in Goan Religious Architecture’, Instituto Camões, Panjim, February 24.


Wilson, Brian C., Abhijit Ambekar, and Rohini Pande. 2013. ‘Defending the Golden City: Survey and GPS Aided Mapping of the Outer Fortification Wall Surrounding Old Goa’. Man and Environment 38.1.


Wilson, Brian. 2015. ‘In the Shadow of the Cathedral: The Production of Urban Landscapes, Human Environment Interaction, and Ruination in Velha Goa during Portuguese Colonial Occupation’. PhD thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago.



Conservation and Restoration


Mendiratta, Sidh Losa. 2011. ‘New and Old Ideas for Old Goa: The Gracias/Vassalo e Silva conservation and musealization plan of 1959 and its aftermath’. Online at (viewed on August 16, 2017).


Nachinolkar, Ketak. 2017. Conservation of Religious Architecture in Goa, paper presented at conference, Fundacao Oriente, Panaji, February 9.


Ribeiro, Edgar. 2013. ‘Mapping Heritage in Old Goa’. Online at (viewed on August 16, 2017).


Santos, J R. 2015. ‘On the Trail of Baltazar Castro, a Portuguese Restorer in India’. Proceedings of the EAHN 2015: Entangled Histories, Multiple Geographies, Belgrade. Online at (viewed on August 16, 2017).


———. 2016. ‘‘Reinstalling the Old City of Goa as an Eternal Light of Portuguese Spirituality’: The Plan for the Reintegration of Old Goa at the End of the Colonial Period’. Online at (viewed on August 16, 2017).





Archaeological Survey of India. ‘World Heritage Sites - Churches of Old Goa’. Online at (viewed October 10, 2017).


Mattoso, José (President of Editorial Council). ‘HPIP: Heritage of Portuguese Influence’.  Online at (viewed on October 10, 2017).


UNESCO. ‘Churches and Convents of Goa’. Online at (viewed on October 10, 2017).





Shyam Benegal, Zafar Hai, Vidya Dehejia. 2007. ‘Rome of the Tropics: Goa’. Pūrva Uttara Past Forward. DVD 1. Bombay: Marg Publications.