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Philipp A. Maas
General Introduction[1]The late fourth or early fifth century Pātañjalayogaśāstra is the oldest preserved systematic Sanskrit exposition from a Brāhmaṇa milieu on spiritual liberation through meditation. It is divided into four chapters or quarters (pāda), each consisting of two frequently clearly…
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Shruti Chakraborty
Recent interest in yogic practices has coincided with the spread of gymnastics and bodybuilding. These were developed as a system of therapeutic movements, which is probably from where the phrase 'mind, body and spirit' emerged. Here we briefly trace the evolution of yoga, from before Patanjali’s …
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Karen O’Brien-Kop
Introduction Although a popular translation for the word ‘yoga’ is ‘union’, recent scholarship shows that throughout history the meanings of yoga have been multiple and subtly shifting: from the yoga-kṣema of the Vedic pastoralists (which indicated habitation cycles of movement and rest) to the…
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Graham Burns
'Cauraṅgi, Nāth siddha, from the caves at Panhale Kaji in Maharashtra'. Photo by Dr James Mallinson and Dr Daniela Bevilacqua, Haṭha Yoga Project.   Although meditative practices can be found in many (perhaps most) religious and spiritual traditions, as well as in more secular milieux in…
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