Ayan Ghosh

Ayan is Senior Visual Researcher at Sahapedia. He takes particular interest in the history of South East Asia.

The UNESCO World Heritage Site of Polonnaruwa was the second capital of Rajarata after the destruction of Anuradhapura in 993 CE by the Chola invaders from Southern India. It comprises, besides the Hindu monuments built by the Cholas, the monumental ruins of the fabulous garden-city created by Parakramabahu I in the 12th century. A number of important Buddhist monuments exist at Polonnaruwa centered around the Sacred Quadrangle and Gal Vihara. Important monuments were also added during the reigns of King Nissankamalla I and King Vijayabahu I. The city came under brief occupation by the Pandyan Kingdom from southern India and was also ruled by Kalinga Magha, the founder of the kingdom of Jaffna. Facing constant threat of invasion from Southern India, Polonnaruwa was ultimately abandoned in 1310 CE.